Chapter 7 discussed leadership in groups and teams, but chapter 8 deals more closely with the way leaders work in an organization. Leadership in organizations is pivotal to how well an organization is run. This chapter focuses on the nature of organizations and symbolic leadership, but also looks at how crisis situations need good leadership as well. Lastly, it looks at how to shape motivation and performance in the office. All of these aspects are important for leaders in organizations to understand the dynamics of.

Organizations can be defined as "the product of communication" (Hackman 248). They are formed through the communication process, and communication is not considered part of the organization but is the organization. This communication helps build the culture for the organization. An organization culture is made up of assumptions, values, and symbols. Symbols inside of a organization are also called artifacts, and these include: language, stories and myths, rites and rituals, buildings, products, technology, office decor, dress and physical appearance, and much more. All of these play a role in the formation of the organization, and help determine the direction of the organization through symbolic leadership. Another way to establish culture is through primary and secondary mechanisms. Primary mechanisms are the most important aspects for shaping a culture, and they include: attention, reactions to critical incidents, resource allocation, role modeling, rewards, and selection. On the other hand, secondary mechanisms reinforce the primary mechanisms through: structure, systems and procedures, rites and rituals, physical space, stories, and formal statements. Shaping motivation is also important in organizations. The book uses the Pygmalion Effect as a way to show how we all have a tendency to live up to the expectations of others. Through this leaders can communicate through climate, input, output, and feedback. If all of these are used effectively, then the leaders can build a great climate with high standards to help maximize performance.

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Lastly, crisis situations happen at all organizations, and that's why a good leader should understand how to react in those situations. The key to leading an organization in a crisis is having the proper amount of preparation. The typical crisis cycle includes: prodomal crisis (warning), acute crisis, chronic crisis, and crisis resolution. All organizations should have emergency tool kits that include: problem solving, action plans, crisis management teams, designated spokespeople, media strategies, honesty and compassion, and image insurance. Crisis management and leadership involves public speaking and this leads us to Chapter 9 which discusses public leadership.